Grammar: VERB and its CLASSIFICATION

Grammar: VERB and its CLASSIFICATION

Verb: Verb is a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence.
Classification of verbs:

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Finite Verb:
Finite verb is a kind of verb which expresses a full meaning of the speaker without asking any demand to know.
Or, we can say, a finite verb is a form of verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause.

Non-finite Verb:
Non-finite verb is a kind of verb which doesn’t express any meaning of the speaker without asking any demand to know.
Or, we can say, non-finite verb is a form of verb that does not show a distinction in tense and cannot stand alone as the main verb in a sentence.

Especially infinitive, gerund and participle are called the non-finite verb as these verbs do not express any meaning without main verb of a sentence.
Infinitive: to write
Gerund: writing
Participle: Present participle : writing
                       Past Participle: written
Note:
Gerund: Gerund is a verb form which includes -ing at the end and works as a noun.
Present Participle: Present participle is a verb form which also includes -ing at the end and works as a verb.
Examples:
►We wanted to go there.
Here ‘wanted’ is finite verb and ‘to go’– an infinitive verb is non-finite verb.
►Walking is a good exercise for health.
Here, ‘Walking’ is a gerund verb which works as a noun of the subject.
► I heard someone shouting for help.
Here ‘shouting’ is a present participle verb which works as a non-finite verb of this sentence.
►I done my home task have gone away.
Here ‘done’– past participle is a non-finite verb whereas ‘have gone’ is a finite verb.
Principal Verb:
Principal verb is called the main verb of a sentence.
Example:
►I went there.
►Karim goes to school.
Auxiliary Verb:
Auxiliary verb is called the helping verb which is used to help the main verb for expressing a full meaning of a sentence.
Mainly Auxiliary  verbs have two types like- (a) Principal Auxiliary (b) Modal Auxiliary
Principal Auxiliaries are: am, is, are, was, were, be    Modal Auxiliaries are: will, shall, can, may, must, would, should, could, might
Example:
►I am a student.
►He is a teacher.
►He is going to meet his friend.
Transitive Verb:
Transitive verb is a form of verb which has an object.
Example:
►He bought a bicycle.
(Here ‘a bicycle’ is the object of the main verb ‘bought’ so ‘bought’ is a transitive verb)
Intransitive Verb:
Intransitive verb is a form of verb which has no object.
Example:
►The moon shines at night.
(Here there is no object so the main verb ‘shines’ is an intransitive verb)
Factitive Verb:
There are some transitive verbs which have object yet the sentence doesn’t express the full meaning of the sentence. To express the full meaning of the sentence, some words are needed for transitive verbs as the complement of the sentence. These verbs are called factitive verbs.

Subject                Verb                            Object                Complement

I                               found                               him                       absent.
I                               found                                him                       tired.
We                          elected                              him                       our captain.
We                          consider                           him                       honest.
My parents           named                               me                         Abid.

Generally select, elect, find, nominate, appoint, make, call, think, choose, consider etc. are used as factitive verbs.
Copulative Verb:
There are some intransitive verbs that do not express a full meaning of a sentence without some extra words. These extra words are used as complement of the sentence. So these verbs are called copulative verbs.

Subject                  Intransitive Verb                Complement

The man                  seems                                          to be tired.
The man                 became                                        angry.
Those books          are                                               of no use.
This flower             looks                                            beautiful.

Generally look, smell, fall, hear, remain, turn, appear, become, seem, grow, feel, taste and be verb are used as copulative verbs.

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